Cancer is a life threatening group of disease which involves the abnormal growth of cell that can spread to other parts of the body. Cancer treatment often leads to infertility. Thus, fertility preservation has become very important in cancer survivors to improve their quality of life. Fertility preservation refers to the preservation of the ability of an individual or couple to reproduce after any surgical treatment or pathophysiology.
Fertility Preservation for Female Cancer Patients
Some of the fertility preservation options in female cancer patients are listed below:
- Embryo Cryopreservation: embryo cryopreservation is an established procedure that provides a good success rate depending on the quality and quantity of embryos stored. In this process, the embryos are preserved at sub-zero temperatures. The patient is required to go through IVF and a sperm sample is required to fertilize the oocyte.
- Mature Oocyte Cryopreservation: when the woman is unmarried or does not have a partner, they can choose the option of oocyte cryopreservation. In this process, the mature oocyte is preserved at sub zero temperatures and the patient has to go through ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval. Due to improved freezing and thawing process, pregnancy rates using oocyte cryopreservation have improved considerably.
- Ovarian Tissue Cryopreservation: prior to ovarian failure due to laparoscopy or laparotomy, ovarian cortical tissue that is rich in primodial follicles is retrieved, dissected into small fragments and cryopreserved at sub zero temperature. After the completion of cancer therapy, the tissue is transplanted into the pelvis or outside the pelvis-abdominal wall.
- In Vitro Maturation: the process involves the aspiration of immature oocyte after minimal or no ovarian stimulation and is followed by IVM and cryopreservations of embryos, generated after fertilisation, or mature oocytes.
- Ovarian Transposition: in this process, the ovaries are moved from the field of radiation by cutting the utero-ovarian ligaments. Ovarian transposition carries several risks and should be avoided.
- Gonadal Shielding: in girls who have not attained puberty, gonadal shielding with lead shields is done to increase the chances of preserving fertility.
Fertility Preservation for Male Cancer Patients
All cancer treatment options like radiotherapy, chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation and surgery can disrupt the normal spermatogenesis and sex hormone production in males.
- Sperm Cryopreservation: for a patient seeking cryopreservation, firstly semen sample is collected through masturbation prior to cancer treatment. If ejaculation is not achieved or the patient has a condition of retrograde ejaculation, the sperms in the urine should be assessed by doing a post-ejaculatory urinalysis. The collected sperm sample can be preserved at sub zero level for up to 15 years. With the development of IVF and intracystoplasmic sperm injection techniques, sperm cryopreservation has led to successful pregnancies.
- Gonadal Shielding: during radiation therapy, the gonads are shielded by lead plates to protect the area and increase the chances of preserving fertility.
Reasons for Choosing ARC
- ARC has been providing advanced health care treatment for over a decade to ensure maximum success rate at a reasonable price.
- We have cutting edge infrastructure and best laboratories for IVF which makes ARC one of the best in the world.